at our shellfish reef in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria
Schools of pinkie snapper at our shellfish reef in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria © Jarrod Boord, Streamline Media

Food & Water Stories

Rebuilding Australia's lost shellfish reefs

A clean ocean, safe coastline, more fish and jobs for regional Australia

You can help us build 60 reefs over 6 years

Help us be the first nation to restore the world’s most endangered marine ecosystem

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A bold commitment to build 60 reefs over six years

We're leading Australia’s largest marine restoration initiative, to bring shellfish reef ecosystems back from the brink of extinction — for the benefit of both people and nature.

We've demonstrated that shellfish reefs can be restored at scale and their benefits returned. Our bold initiative will rapidly expand the restoration and protection of valuable shellfish reef ecosystems. It will allow communities across Australia to join us in practical conservation efforts where real, local results can be seen.

Over the next six years, together with governments, businesses and the community we aim to protect and restore 60 shellfish reefs across Australia, making Australia the first nation in the world to recover a critically endangered marine ecosystem.

We're leading Australia’s largest marine restoration initiative, bringing shellfish reef ecosystems back from the brink of extinction.

Oceans Program Lead

You can save shellfish reefs from extinction

Help restore the world's most critically endangered marine ecosystem.

Donate now

Reefs all over the word are in rapid decline. They’re threatened by global forces such as climate change and local influences like pollution. Our ocean is rapidly changing and it’s hard to not feel in despair about the loss of fish and marine life along our coastlines.

Shellfish reefs have the unenviable position of being Australia’s most critically endangered marine ecosystem. These reefs, made from billions of oysters and mussels, once thrived in Australia’s bays and estuaries from Noosa in Queensland right around Australia’s southern coastline to Perth in Western Australia. Now less than 10% remain.

Thankfully, shellfish reefs are one ecosystem that we can save from extinction and fully recover. In the process, creating hundreds of jobs, opportunities for volunteering and helping to sustain our nature-based coastal communities and industries.

at Georges Bay, Tasmania - the last surviving healthy reef of its kind!
Australian Flat Oyster Reef at Georges Bay, Tasmania - the last surviving healthy reef of its kind! © Chris Gillies/TNC

The decline of shellfish reefs

Decades of commercial dredging, pollution and overfishing decimated these vital reef habitats, once home to hundreds of marine species. One shellfish reef type — created by the Australian Flat Oyster — is reduced to just one functioning reef system — at Georges Bay, St Helens in Tasmania.

The loss of shellfish reefs results in the loss of the social and economic benefits they provide to people and nature. Fish stocks decline because fish have no-where to breed, hide and feed whilst other marine life have no reef areas to colonise. Water quality also declines.

Shellfish such as oysters are excellent natural water filters, with one adult oyster filtering up to a bathtub of water a day.

The removal of millions of shellfish caused the loss of a natural process that keeps our coastal waters clean and clear. This also puts our coastal communities at increased risk as these reefs provide an important line of natural defence for our coastline reducing coastal erosion and damage from storms.

Benefits of shellfish reefs

Community benefits of shellfish reefs

Shellfish reefs provide many benefits to people and communities, including:

  • 850 direct jobs will be created in maritime construction, science, fisheries and associated service sectors with half of these in regional areas.
  • 7,000m3 of shell waste will be diverted from landfill, to be recycled into new reefs.
  • New community volunteering and education opportunities. 


How reefs are built

  1. First, we identify suitable sites for restoration using a combination of science, field surveys, and historical and contemporary knowledge provided by fishers, divers, boaties and scientists.
  2. Next, we create the reef base by laying natural materials on the seafloor, often a combination of limestone rubble and recycled shells, which mimic the foundations of a natural reef. This provides elevation and hard surfaces that attracts marine life.

    The recycled seafood shells (oysters, mussels and scallop shells) are collected from local restaurants as part of our Shuck Don’t Chuck shell recycling project.
  3. Lastly, we scatter the reef base with millions of baby oysters and mussels grown in nearby hatcheries in partnership with shellfish farmers. These shellfish grow and attach to the reef base and each other, creating a living reef which further attracts a diversity of fish and aquatic life.

Scientists monitor reefs for several years after construction for threats such as predators and disease and make adjustments to how the reef is constructed to ensure the reef grows and thrives into a natural, self-sustaining reef. This innovative approach is revitalising reefs from Noosa to Melbourne, from Adelaide to Perth.

The result is less waste to landfill, rejuvenated habitats for native species and improved economic outcomes for local communities. 

Watch this video to see how we're rebuildling reefs

See how we're rebuilding reefs at one of our projects - in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria

Building better networks for change

The shellfish reefs are designed, built and seeded with baby shellfish in partnership with:

  • Recreational and commercial fishers, diving and fishing clubs
  • Oyster and mussel growers, seafood wholesalers and restaurants
  • Maritime construction labourers and engineers
  • Local communities, schools and Traditional Owners
  • Corporate businesses
  • Natural Resource Management groups

We’ve created the Australian Shellfish Reef Restoration Network to bring together restoration practitioners, researchers and the community to help drive the national agenda on shellfish reef research.

Reef restoration projects across Australia

Click on the points on the map for more information.

Oyster Harbour
Restoring Albany’s lost shellfish reefs
Port Phillip Bay
We are turning the tide on habitat loss in Port Phillip Bay and reinstating our most threatened marine habitat the shellfish reef.
Windara Reef
We're rebuilding a shellfish reef across 20 hectares in the Gulf St Vincent. Restoring this reef is critical to improve marine biodiversity, fish production and water quality.
Peel Harvey Estuary
Helping deliver on-ground and in-water environmental actions in consultation with the community, to improve the health of the Peel-Harvey Catchment
Black Swan
Swan-Canning Estuary
Keeping Perth's Swan and Canning rivers healthy and clean by rebuilding the lost shellfish reefs.
Noosa River
Noosa River
The first project of its kind in Queensland to rebuild oyster reefs in the Noosa River.
Snorkeller
Adelaide Shellfish Reef
We're bringing shellfish reefs back to the coast of Adelaide where more than a third of the South Australian coastline was once teeming with these reefs and marine life.

Learn more about our shellfish reef restoration projects